It is a truism, but nonetheless true, that modern philosophical discourse revolves around the question of how (or if) real knowledge is possible. Philosophers from Jürgen Habermas to Alasdair MacIntyre have begun their own efforts to establish a tenable foundation by observing that there is no common agreement regarding the basis of knowledge, especially moral knowledge. MacIntyre concludes that much modern political and social debate is futile because the contending parties have incommensurable moral visions, with many declaring a relativism (at least when convenient) that precludes any movement towards common truth.


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